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Carriage     Have you ever wished that you could go back in time and experience life in a typical Brethren farming community? When life was at a much slower pace, without the vibration of noisy over crowded highways, and the word filth referred to something in a barnyard. Here is at least one opportunity to discover what simple family life was like during the 1840-1850's, in and around the small farming community of Boston, Indiana. For some this will be a chance to discover former ways of more simple living and for others it will be a refreshing trip down memory lane, because of stories that grandparents used to tell. Brethren church historian Merle C. Rummel has graciously permitted several chapters of his book, "Four Mile Community" to be place online, so that people in the modern world may discover what life was like in a more simple time, when people knew almost everyone in town. A time of sheltered existence for many, when the outside world - was the outside world.


Frontier Journal
Written by Merle C. Rummel ~ Published January, 1999 ~ Last Updated, January, 1999 ©
This document may be reproduced, only if remaining intact, with full acknowledgement to the author.
[Table of Contents]


    The Journal covers the period from the beginning of Brethren migration in America (about 1730 to 1860) or just before the beginning of those series of world changing events that began with the Civil War and progressed through the settlement of the west and the Industrial Revolution. The Journal gathers the known people and events that directly effected the Frontier Brethren during this period of time based on an annual presentation.

1648   Peace of Westphalia -end of the Thirty Years War; between
   Ferdinand III (the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor) and Louis XIII,
   Bourbon King of France (guided by Cardinal Richelieu).  Most of
   the fighting had been done over the fertile Rhine River Valley,
   the Palatinate, with some Counties ravaged, almost devastated
   and completely uninhabited.  Started as a Religious War
   (Protestant vs Catholic).  

1659   Treaty of the Pyrenees -King Philip IV of Spain refused to
   accept the Peace of Westphalia, and war continued between he
   and the French (under Cardinal Mazarin).  Spain was driven back
   south of the Pyrenees Mts. (present Spain).

1670   The "collegia pietatis" begin meeting at home of Philipp
   Jakob Spener.  These are small group house meetings for Bible
   Study and Prayer.  They spread across  Germany, -eventually,
   one met in the Mack Mill, at Schriesheim.

1673   French invasion into the Palatinate.

1675   Philipp Jakob Spener wrote "Pia Desideria" (Pious Desires)
   -a primary work of the Pietist movement.
      Doegg and Sesquahannock Indians "killed near 200 Christian
   Persons" near Jamestown VA -started because an Indian took a
   wild hog home for dinner.  The settler who owned the hog, with
   friends, shot up the Doegg Indian village.  It became the cause
   for the Bacon Rebellion, against laws that protected Indian
   lands.  The Rebellion collapse when Nathaniel Bacon died of
   dysentery.

1681   William Penn is granted lands in New World: Included
   Pennsylvania (Penn's Woods), Delaware and parts of New Jersey. 
   Penn set up a "Holy Experiment", in which Pennsylvania became
   a refuge and sanctuary to persecuted Christians:  this began
   with his own sect, the Quakers, but quickly included the
   Mennonites   and Amish of Germany and Switzerland.  The Capital
   city was Philadelphia (City of Brotherly Love); leaflets were
   distributed offering land at the price of 2 English pounds for
   100 acres.

1683   Creyfeld Mennonites bought land, thirteen families, under
   Daniel Pastorious began settlement at Germantown, just outside
   Philadelphia.

1689-1697   King William's War, American part of English defenses
   against the French King, Louis XIV.   French invasion into the
   Palatinate, with attendant destruction.  Indian attacks on the
   English Colonial Frontier, led by French officers.  French
   ships from Port Royal, Acadia, attack New England shipping.

1692   Salem Witch Trials begin, Massachusetts Colony.

1695   August Hermann Francke (of the University of Halle) begins
   publications of "Observations biblicae" a newsletter analyzing
   translation of scriptures from the Greek.  He emphasized that
   each person should carry his own Greek New Testament.
      Kaskaskia founded on the Mississippi River (Illinois-Spanish)

1699   Publications by Gottfried Arnold:  "Portraiture of
   Primitive Christians" and "Impartial History of the Church and
   Heretics" were a great influence on the various Pietist groups,
   including Alexander Mack.  Though Pietist, they presented some
   Anabaptist concepts, hence: Brethren Adult Baptism.
      Ernest Christoph Hochmann leaves the University of Halle and
   comes to Wittgenstein, is befriended by Alexander Mack, miller.

1702-1713  Queen Anne's War -War of the Spanish Succession
   -French and Indians against frontier in New England.  British
   unsuccessful in attempts to capture     Quebec and Montreal. 
   Indian massacre of Deerfield, MA (1704).

1707  French invasion of Palatinate.

1708   Alexander Mack leads his bible study fellowship (collegia
   pietatis) in baptism in the River Eder, Schwarzenau.  They had
   to break the ice in the river. It was early morning.
      -Winter one of worst in Europe -intense cold started in
   October and ran to April.  Grape vines and Fruit trees were
   destroyed.  Birds even froze in the air.

1711  Queen Maud settles refugees from the Palatinate in the New
   World.  Colonies are established at New Bern NC (devastated by
   an Indian Massacre that year) and in New York, where Governor
   Hunter set them to working in the Pine Tar industry (Naval
   Stores).  This is a failure, the some 3000 Palatinates move to
   the Schoharie Valley, where there is opposition to obtaining
   farmland, so they move to Pennsylvania, and settle at Reading.

1711-1712  Tuscarora Indian War -Virginia.  The Tuscaroras had
   been selling captive Indians to the whites for slave.  When
   some of their land was appropriated by the colonists, they
   attacked New Bern NC, the capitol of the colony.  The colonists
   and native tribes defeated the Tuscaroras, and more than 1000
   were sold into slavery.  The Tuscaroras drifted north to the
   shores of Lake Erie and joined the Iroquois Confederacy.

1712  Canstein Bible Institute (Univ. of Halle, pietist) begins
   printing of Bibles.

1714  Mennonites begin settlement of Lancaster Co, Pennsylvania.

1715  Refuge of the Brethren (from Marienborn and Epstein) to
   Creyfeld (county of Cleves, Prussia) Mennonite settlement,
   industrial city.  Brethren called "Dompelaers" (Baptizers).

1717  Baptism by the Brethren at Creyfeld of 6 Reformed Church
   members.  These six were imprisoned at Duesseldorf, for 4
   years, at hard labor.

1719  Peter Becker, Brethren minister, and forty families from
   Creyfeld move to Germantown in Pennsylvania.  Some few stayed
   in Germantown, others moved to the "back country" (Berks and
   Lancaster Counties).

1720  Count Henry of Wittgenstein died.  Religious freedom was
   removed and the Brethren at Schwarzenau underwent severe
   persecution.  They moved en mass to Surhuisterween in West
   Friesland, Holland.
      Conrad Beissel (radical pietist) comes to Germantown.  A
   skilled baker, he apprentices to Peter Becker to learn the
   Weaving Trade.

1722  Refugees of the "Unitas Fratrum" (Hussites) gather at
   Herrnhut, on the estates of Nicolaus Ludwig, Count Zinzendorf. 
   They form a Pietistic conclave.  This is the start of the
   Moravian Brethren, who expand the Pietist tradition of
   Christian Missionaries -to the world.  They form colonies in
   America (Bethlehem and Nazareth PA, Salem NC, etc) and missions
   to the Indians (New Philadelphia, Gnaddenhutten, Schoenbrun
   Village -in Ohio, among others).
      Peter Becker with two Brethren visit the scattered Brethren
   in Berks and Lancaster Counties.

1723  Rumor spreads that European Brethren leader, Christian Libe
   was coming to America. Brethren from the interior came to
   Germantown to meet him.  The rumor was false, but the
   Germantown Brethren met with them at Peter Becker's house. 
   This can be called the beginning of the Brethren Church in
   America.
      Peter Becker baptizes 6 persons from the Coventry, on
   Christmas Day, in Wissahickon Creek.

1724  "Great Missionary Tour"  the Brethren from Germantown visit
   the scattered Brethren in the Interior:  Indian Creek,
   Falckner's Swamp, Oley;  
   Conrad Beissel baptized by Peter Becker
      Coventry Church (Chester County), Martin Urner, minister 
      Conestoga Church (Lancaster County) Conrad Beissel, minister

1726  Brethren at Berleburg, Germany, begin printing Bibles.

1728  First Quaker and Brethren Settlers west of Susquehanna River
   (York County, PA).
      Falkners Swamp Church (Berks County, PA) Andreas Frey, elder
   (eventually won by Zinzendorf to Moravian cause of Church
   Union).
      Monocacy Trail (Indian) [later made official -Michael Danner
   commissioner --from Susquehanna River (at Wrightstown) south by
   Marsh Creek, along Monocacy, to Frederick, Maryland.
      Conrad Beissel forms solitary community on the Conestoga

1729  Alexander Mack leads migration of Brethren from Friesland
   to Germantown.  (Ship "Allen", embarked: 7 July 1729, landed:
   15 Sept 1729; 55 families).

1732  Conrad Beissel forms beginning of the "Ephrata Cloisters": 
   a Radical Pietist, Sabbatarian (7th Day Sabbath), based on the
   "solitary life", celibacy (ideal -marriage as bride to Jesus).
      Oley Church (Berks County) Martin Gaby minister.
      Major Flu Epidemic -came in from Europe.

1733  Great Swamp Church (Bucks County) Abraham Duboy, minister
   Amwell Church (Hunterdon County NJ) --John Naas, John
   Bechtelsheimmer; became the first Brethren church to use
   English.

1734  Jonathan Edwards' Revival begins:  The Great Awakening 
   "Sinner, in the hands of an Angry God"  (Massachusetts, highly
   emotional -swept the colonies).

1735  Alexander Mack dies, Germantown PA
      Jacob and John Funk purchase land near Strassburg Viriginia,
   in the Valley, single Brethren of the Ephrata Community, this
   becomes a way point to the Brethren as they move south.

1736  White Oak Church (Lancaster County) Michael Fautz, minister
      Michael Danner imprisoned at Baltimore by Thomas Cresaps,
   over border disputed homesteads (Maryland/Pennsylvania).

1738  Exodus of many Germantown Brethren to Ephrata, Beissel
   Community, including Alexander Mack Jr, called Bro Timotheus.
      Little Conewago Church (York County), Daniel Leatherman,
   minister.
      Christopher Sower receives Printing Press, from Brethren of
   Berleburg, Germany. Becomes foremost printer in the Colonies,
   rivaling even Benjamin Franklin.
   
1739  George Adam Martin ordained to ministry at Coventry, by
   Peter Becker.
      Wesley Revival begins in England.  John Wesley, returned from
   Hernhutt (Moravians), begins a Pietist movement in England -a
   Method of Christianity (Methodism).

1740-1748  King George's War -American name for British part in
   the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748), ended by treaty of
   Aix-la-Chapelle. Indian raids on the Frontier (New England to
   Virginia).

1741  Conewago Church (York/Adams County), George Adam Martin,
   minister.  He is influenced by Conrad Beissel, and withdraws to
   Ephrata, taking 60 members with him.  Excommunicated.
      Count Zinzendorf comes to Bethlehem PA --holds synods, to
   unite the German Christians; the Brethren attend the 3rd Synod,
   at Oley (Feb 1742).
      John Naas dies, Amwell NJ

1742  Migration to the Conococheague, Maryland, from Oley, Berks
   County, PA.
      First Brethren Settlers to the Monocacy, Frederick County, MD
      George Adam Martin calls for a Brethren Great Assembly, to
   counter the snares of the Moravians.  Martin Urner was the
   Presiding Elder of this first Annual Meeting.  Pentecost was
   the time of the Assembly.

1743  Christopher Sauer publishes first Bible in America, German 
      Conococheague Church (Washington County, MD) Nicholas Martin,
   minister.

1744  Brudersthal, first Brethren families to Brothers Valley
   (Somerset County, PA).

1745  Dunkards Bottom (Montgomery County, VA) on New River, called
   "Mahanaim";  Alexander Mack Jr, Isreal and Samuel Eckerlin -
   break from Ephrata Cloisters, flee "towards the Setting of the
   Sun" -7th Day settlement.
      Capture of Fort Louisbourg, Cape Breton Isle -by Col. Wm.
   Pepperell of New Hampshire with New England militia.  Returned
   to France.

1747  Elder Michael Frantz dies, Conestoga Church, Cocalico
      Peter Becker dies, Skippack.
      Isreal Creek Church (Frederick County, MD) Jacob Danner, minister
      Measles Epidemic.
   
1748  Beaver Creek Church (Newberry Co, So Carolina) David Martin,
   min; congregation moved mostly from the Conococheague, MD.
   Migration was down the Great Valley Road, and at the Roanoke
   River, the Carolina Road left through the gap and followed the
   face of the Blue Ridge down to the Yadkin and on.
      Northkill Congregation (Berks County) George Kleine, minister
      Alexander Mack Jr left Dunkards Bottom, (prophetic) dream of
   Indian Raid.
      Alexander Mack Jr (Sander Mack), and Christopher Sauer Jr are
   given oversight of the Germantown Church (Gemeinschaft)
   (advanced to Eldership "on trial").

1750  Christopher Gist, Surveyor for the Ohio Company, to
   Northwest Territory.

1751  Pipe Creek Church (Carroll County, MD), Michael Urner, minister
      Monongahela Church (West Virginia), Eckerlins left Dunker
   Bottom, New River go to Monongahela River area, on WV/PA
   border.  Indians take them captive.

1752  Upper Antietam Church (Franklin County, PA), Abraham Stouffer,
   William Stover, ministers.
      Shenandoah Church (near Strassburg Va) Christopher Guss,
   minister;  This church seems to grow in the area near the Funk
   settlement of 1735.

1753  Col George Washington, with 400 soldiers, arrived to build
   fort at the forks of the Ohio.  French imprisoned, built Fort
   Duquesne.
      Alexander Mack Jr and Christopher Sauer are ordained Elders

1754  Broad River Church (Fairfield County, So Carolina)  a mixed
   group of Brethren, some holding to the Ephrata 7th Day Sabboth. 
   24 families moved south from Concocheague and French Creek.

1754-1763  French and Indian War, American name for the Seven
   Years War, which resulted in the defeat of the French on the
   North American Continent.  Essential a contest for the Ohio
   Valley -French Forts were built from Western Pennsylvania to the
   Mouth of the Mississippi: Fort Niagara (Youngstown NY); Fort
   Presqu'Isle (Eire PA); Fort Le Boeuf (Waterford PA); Fort
   Venango (Franklin PA); Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg PA); Fort
   Detroit (Detroit MI); Fort Vincennes (Vincennes IN); Fort Miami
   (Fort Wayne IN); Fort St Joseph (St Joseph MI); Fort Chartres and
   Fort Kaskaskia (near Chester IL, on the Mississippi River)
      The French loosed their Indian Allies against the English
   settlements all along the Frontier.  There were many Brethren
   massacred.  Many Brethren were driven from their Frontier
   homes.  There are stories from this time of Heroism, and of the
   Faith.

1755  General Braddock began major campaign against French at
   Fort Duquesne, to be followed with action against Crown Point
   (Lake Champlaign) and Fort Niagara.  His Royal Army, with
   colonial militia, including George Washington, marched through
   Frederick County, MD to Ft Frederick, Cumberland MD, where an army 
   road was cut into the wilderness going toward Ft Duquesne (now
   US 40).  French General Jumonville, with regulars and Indian
   allies, defeated the British Army and killed General Braddock. 
   George Washington saved the remnants of the  British Army at
   Fort Necessity.
      First colony of Brethren settle in southern portion of
   Morrison's Cove (PA).
      Drapers Meadows Massacre:  Shawnee Indians kill Col James
   Preston and massacre his settlement at Drapers Meadows, on the
   New River, take Mary Ingles captive to Kentucky (Ingles Ferry),
   but do not find Philip Lybrook, frontier scout.
      Martin Urner Sr. dies, Coventry Church, Pottstown PA.

1756  Great Swatara Church (Dauphin County) Michael Fautz, George
   Miller; division of the White Oak/Conestoga Congregations.
      Middletown Valley (Frederick County, Maryland), Daniel Leatherman,
   minister -Morgan Edwards says that he was Bishop for all of
   Maryland.  He lived at Garfield, or "Gravel Hill", on the Blue
   Ridge.

1757  Little Swatara Church (Berks County) Peter Heckman,
   minister; Tulpehocken.
      Hollmanns Creek Church (Rockingham County, Va) Joseph Chiefly,
   minister; this church was the predecessor to the Flat Rock
   Church.

1758  Peter Becker dies, at home of daughter Mary Harley, Skippack on
   Indian Creek.
      Christopher Sauer Sr. dies, at Germantown PA
      Codorus Church (York County), Jacob Danner, minister
      Bermudian Church (Adams County) Peter Miller minister,
   composed of the 60 families who followed George Adam Martin out
   of the Conestoga Church; 7th Day Baptist.
      Fort Duquesne abandoned by French, on approach of General
   Forbes, renamed Fort Pitt.  Forbes Army Road (now US30) went
   through Bedford PA, Ligonier PA, Greensburg PA.  Opened passage
   to the west for many Brethren.

1759  Ten Mile Creek Church (Washington County PA) Bro. Helft,
   Elder.
      Beaver Creek Church (Craven County, SC) David Martin, minister
      Seige of Quebec -Generals Wolfe (British) and Montcalm
   (French) both killed in the battle, British Victory, Quebec
   surrendered, end of French Canada.
      Measles Epidemic.

1760  Georges Creek Church (Fayette County PA) Eckerlins
      Cacapon Church  (Virginia).
      Madison County Church (Virginia) John Tanner, minister;
   active evangelism drew the ire of the Church of England, John
   Tanner was fined.

1761  Flu Epidemic.

1762  Stony Creek Church (Somerset County, PA Brothers Valley)
      Isreal Creek Church (Frederick County, MD), Jacob Danner, minister
      Indian raid on Brethren in Morrisons Cove, John Martin family
   taken captive.
      George Adam Martin moves to Antietam Creek, Washington Co
   Maryland.  He brings his Sabbatarian and Radical Pietist faith,
   causing division.
      Yadkin Congregation (Crane Creek, Salisbury NC) Conrad Kerns,
   minister.
      Measles Epidemic.

1763  Peace of Paris -Great Britain obtains St Laurence River
   Valley, Ohio Valley (all land east of the Mississippi).
      Jacob Danner moves to Isreal Creek (Frederick County, MD).

1763-1764  Pontiac's War -Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa, determines
   to drive all white men from Indian Country.  Only Fort Detroit
   and Fort Pitt stand against him.  Indian massacres sweep the
   frontier.  Many Brethren are killed.

1764  Elder George Adam Martin moves to Brothers Valley, with
   group of settlers (includes Jacob Miller, minister).  Elder
   Martin is a Brethren Radical Pietist, tending toward the
   Ephrata Sabbatarians, which brings division in the Stoney Creek
   Church.
      Ewarry Congregation (Randolph County, NC) Jacob Stutzman, minister
      Sugar Act -taxation by Prime Minister Grenville, of Great
   Britain.

1766  Elder Jacob Miller returns to Monocacy from Stoney Creek,
   Brothers Valley.

1767  Catawba Congregation (North Carolina) Christopher Guis,
   minister.
      Ft Redstone Meeting (PA) -between the Indians and the White
   Settlers, over encroachment into Indian lands, present are
   Brethren from Brothers Valley.
      Stamp Act -further taxation; resulted in the patriotic "Sons
   of Liberty" and the Stamp Act Congress, at New York City.  The
   Brethren could basically ignore the riotousness, but were
   harassed by those who were being patriotic.

1768  Conrad Beissel dies, Peter Miller succeeds to the office of
   Superintendent at Ephrata Cloisters.
      John and Martin Garber move to Beaver Dam (Frederick County, MD)
      Clouds Creek Church (Berkeley County, SC) James Warren, exhorter.

1769  Elder Michael Pfautz died, White Oak Church, Lancaster County, PA
      probable start of Beaver Dam Church (Frederick County, MD) John
   Garber, minister.
      Survey of the Mason-Dixon Line, separating Pennsylvania and
   Maryland.
      Daniel Boone's first trip to Kaintuck.

1770  The Boston Massacre:  soldiers fire on a rioting crowd,
   killing five.  This stirs up flames of rebellion through most
   the colonies, and brings further harassment of the pacifist
   Brethren.  Many Brethren move to the frontier.
      Edesto Church (Berkeley County, SC) Elijah Patchet, preacher.

1771  Beaver Run Church (Mineral County, WV) on the South Branch of
   the Potomac.

1772  Fraternity Church (Winston Salem NC) Jacob Faw, minister
      Edisto Church (?Orangeburg County, SC) Elijah Pachet, minister
      South Branch Church (Grant County, WV) Martin Power, minister -in
   1785 this church is the center of a dispute over pacificism,
   Valentine Powers is Banned.
      Measles Epidemic

1773  Elder Jacob Miller moves to Franklin County VA, on the Blue
   Ridge.
      Boston Tea Party -while the German Brethren had little to do
   with tea, the continuing fervor and excitement of opposition to
   the King, and even considered rebellion, continued the
   harassment on the Pacifist Churches.

1775  Elder John Garber moves to the Flat Rock Church, Rockingham
   County, VA;  This period evinces considerable migration away from
   the central Maryland/Pennsylvania area --probably due to the
   swearing of oaths of Loyalty, and the pressure of the conflict
   against England. 
      Worst flu epidemic ever known - many die.

1775-1789  American Revolution:  The Brethren read the Bible to
   say that they should support the King, as legal ruler of the
   land.  Many felt a personal gratitude to the King, for
   providing them a refuge from the horrors of the destruction of
   war in Germany.  They also believed in pacifism, not fighting,
   due to their background in Germany.  The result was
   persecution, which had a long lasting effect on the church, and
   changed the pattern of church life.  While many youth scumbled
   to the pressures of their peers, and joined the local Militia,
   and even the Continental Line, most of the Brethren refused to
   be part of the military action.  Instead, as battles were
   fought locally, they did medical and humanitarian work.  Many
   sold food to Armies in the locale  (some major Brethren leaders
   are accredited DAR recognition for this).

1777  Indian Massacre in Morrison's Cove.  The Brethren are
   pacifists, and have consistently refused to be part of the
   local militia defenses.  They died bravely, saying: God's Will
   be Done -"Gottes Wille sei gethan".  Years later elderly
   Indians asked concerning the "Gotwiltahns".
      Battle of Brandywine;  Battle of Germantown;  British Army
   from New York, under General Howe, takes Philadelphia
      British invasion from Canada: General Burgoyne surrenders at
   Saratoga; Col St Leger wins at Oriskany, defeated at Ft Stanwix.

1778  Christopher Sauer's Press confiscated by Revolution. 
   Christopher Sauer dies in bankrupcy.  The Revolutionary Cavalry
   stable their horses in his press room (Battle of Germantown)
   and pages of the Sauer Bible show horseshoe prints -immediate
   result was the change in the Brethren Church, from one of
   education and leadership, to withdrawal and retirement from
   society.
      Annual Meeting speaks against "taking the attest", a paper
   of citizenship, from the American Revolutionary Committees (the
   refusal of the attest brings severe persecution).
      Annual Meeting declares against distilling hard liquor
   (whiskey)  (the concept of temperate living means not drinking
   in excess -wines, ciders, beers are acceptable, and used)
      Dutchmans Creek Church (Davie County, NC) Gasper Rowland, minister.

1779  Annual Meeting says that the Brethren have given their
   allegiance to God, and to whomever He places over us.  Thus we
   cannot repudiate the King (of England) in an attest.

1780  Annual Meeting declares that the Brethren should not pay
   substitute money (for a substitute to be a replacement in the
   militia or army), for self or for sons.

1781  Battle of Yorktown, Decisive Concluding Battle of
   Revolutionary War.

1782  Pennsylvania Militia massacre Moravian Christian Indians
   (Delawares), at Schoenbrunn and Gnaddenhutten (Tuscaras River,
   Ohio).  These had been true to the Colonial Americans during
   the Indian wars of the Revolution.  British force mission
   Indians to move near fort of Detroit.  (Conner family escaped
   massacre, forced to move.)
      John Toney builds first brick house west of the Mountains,
   along the New River, Giles County, VA; brothers live nearby.
      Annual Meeting declares against slavery.

1782-1787  Wyoming Valley -Pennsylvania; Indian attacks along the
   frontier, especially on this settlement so close the Iroquois
   lands.

1783  Tates Creek Church (Madison County, KY) George Boone, Squire
   Boone, ministers  -near Boone's Station (near Lexington KY);
   settlement from Carolinas, Maryland and Pennsylvania.
      Revolutionary War ends, Treaty of Paris.
      Annual Meeting speaks against the Distilling of Whiskey. 
   This is hurtful to the frontier farmers, who have no other way
   to make profit from an excess of corn (too distant from eastern
   coastal city markets).  It is ignored by western Pennsylvania
   Brethren.

1784  Cincinnatus (Fort Washington) Ohio Territory.
      Toney family makes first summer excursion into the Mountains
   of the New River, gathering 'Sang (Ginseng), Great Kanawah
   Valley (near Beckley WV)  This is one of the early groups
   moving down the Shawnee War Path, Kanawha Trace, toward the
   Ohio River, southern Virginia.
      Elder Christopher Sower Jr. dies, Germantown, Pennsylvania.

1785   The Madison County, VA church moved to Kentucky, on the banks
   of the Ohio River, Bullitsburg, Boone Co/John Tanner, minister
      Miller and Moyer families to Penns Valley (Northumberland
   Co/now Centre County, PA).
      Henry Rhoads leads migration from Brothers Valley to
   Muhlenberg County, KY.  Brethren services meet in his log house.

1786  Shay's Rebellion -Massachusetts farmers rebel against the
   Boston Merchant control of the state, especially tax
   favoritism.  The rebellion collapsed.

1787  Constitutional Convention, met in Philadelphia, established
   a form of government.
      Northwest Ordinance ratified, established settlement north
   of the Ohio River, as free -no slavery.
      John Fitch ran a Steamboat out of Philadelphia --more
   attraction, than practical.
      Elder George Wolfe Sr moved from Lancaster County, to the
   Monongahela River at old Fort Redstone (Brownsville), and
   started a flatboat building business:  Wolfe and Sons.

1788  US Constitution ratified, July 4th
      the Ohio Company establishes Marietta, on the Ohio River.

1789  Aukerman family arrives Little Miami, OH.
      George Washington inaugurated President of the new United
   States of America.
      France explodes in Revolution; it goes much farther in
   Radicalism than America even dreamed.  

1790  Hinkston Creek Church (Montgomery County, KY) Peter Hahn, Daniel
   Ockerman, Joseph Molar, John Garver -ministers; largest KY
   Church, settlement from Carolinas.
      Beech Creek Church (Shelby County, KY) Jacob Stutzman, George
   Boone, ministers:  settlement from Carolinas and Maryland, 
   near the Falls, Louisville:  Elk Creek Church (Spencer County, KY).
      Drakes Creek Church (Warren County, KY) John Hendricks, elder;
   settlement from Carolinas, Brethren Universalist (may be "John
   H.." of 1798 AM bann).
      Dutch Settlement (Muhlenberg County, KY) Francis Stump, elder;
   George Wolfe, minister; settlement from Pennsylvania (Henry
   Rhoads -Brother's Valley).
      Stephen Bolender/Christian Waltsmith, ministers -to Penns
   Valley, PA.
      David Colglazier comes to the mouth of Indian Creek (Clermont
   County, OH).
      John Bowman family comes to Obannon Creek (Warren County, OH)
      Elder Daniel Leatherman died (MD).
      General Josiah Harmer leads frontier army to disaster near
   Fort Wayne;  Miami Indian Confederation under Little Turtle .

1791  John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Church, dies.
      US Constitution, Bill of Rights -ratified.
      The army of General Arthur St. Clair was severely defeated
   by the Miami Indians at Fort Recovery, OH.

1793  King Louis XVI of France, and his queen, Marie Antoinette,
   were beheaded by the French Revolution.  The Reign of Terror
   followed, with most of the noble families and political rivals
   being killed.
      Popular America favored the Revolutionaries --an alarmed
   Britain began to increase it Navy, at the expense of sailors
   from American ships.  There was raising protest against the
   British Impressment, although England could be justified, that
   to some extent their sailors often "jumped ship" to American
   vessels.  American ships were seized.
      Very high flooding on the Ohio River.
      Yellow Fever Epidemic in Pennsylvania - many deaths.
      Elder John Countryman moves from Rockingham County, VA to Kentucky.

1794   General Anthony Wayne was given command of the Northwest
   Territory following the defeat of General St. Clair.  A huge
   army was gathered at Ft Washington, based around a contingent
   of the Continental Line.  
      The army moved north to Ft. Greenville, which had been built
   as its headquarters, then to the new stockade built at the site
   of General St Clair's defeat, Ft. Recovery.  It continued North
   to the Auglaize River and its junction with the Maumee River. 
   Ft Defiance was built there.  Following the Maumee brought it
   to the primary villages of the Ohio Indian Tribes.  Villages
   and crops were destroyed.  The Indians used a breastwork of
   dead timber left by a tornado as they fought General Wayne's
   Army (Battle of Fallen Timbers).  The army went to bayonets and
   charged into the morass.  Some of the settler cavalry found a
   passage past the ruins next to the river and as the Indians
   were driven out of the timber they were taken by the cavalry. 
   It was a major Indian defeat.  The loss of their food supplies
   for the coming winter ended the conflict.
      Shawnee Indians massacre the Toney family 'Sang camp on the
   Coal River, in now Boone County, WV.  
      Delaware Indians, including remnants of Moravian Christian
   Indians of Gnadenhutten, Salem and Schoenbrunn, settle on White
   River in Indiana. 
      Whiskey Rebellion -Western Pennsylvania farmers rebel on the
   payment of taxes on the whiskey they make.  Liquid Corn is far
   easier to move and sell, than in its natural state.  General
   Washington leads an army against a group of the rebels, they
   flee.  The Brethren of Brothers Valley and Washington County, are
   part of the rebellion.
      Annual Meeting speaks against the "Univeralist" beliefs in
   the Carolinas -David Martin, John Hendricks (this is just a
   little more radical in belief, than the prevalent "Restitution"
   beliefs of the Pietist Brethren.)
      Yellow Fever epidemic continues in Pennsylvania.

1795  Obannon Church (Clermont County, OH) Frederick Weaver, minister; 
   founded by Elder David Stouder (?Stover of Limestone KY).
      Elder George Wolfe Sr from Brownsville PA to Logan County, KY
      Elder Christian Hostetler from Meyersdale PA to Mt Eden,
   Shelby County, KY, builds a Brethren church building.
      Daniel Clingensmith leaves Lancaster County, PA for Whitewater
   Creek in MO.
      In a great Conference at Ft. Greenville, a treaty was signed
   surrendering a large portion of Ohio Territory to white
   settlement.  A line was drawn from Ft. Recovery eastward to the
   Ohio River to Ft Henry (Wheeling), and another drawn southward
   to the Ohio River from there.  The line drawn southward, did
   not go directly south, but angled slightly westward to where
   the mouth of the Kentucky River is on the Ohio (near Madison,
   IN now).  In this area, the Indian could live and hunt, but the
   white man was allowed to settle and build his farms without
   fear of Indian attack. 
      Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin; a method of removing
   seeds from raw cotton.  This multiplies the quantity of cotton
   that can be process, hence raised, and results in a booming
   slave market in the Plantation South.

1796  Christian Waldsmith, minister, founds New Germany, Little
   Miami R OH.  He is identified as a Pietist, with Brethren
   connections.  His father was Reformed Minister at Tulpehocken
   and Cocalico.
      Yellow Fever epidemic hits Pennsylvania again.

1797  Conemaugh Congregation (Cambria County, PA) Peter Morgan, elder
      Yellow Fever epidemic continues.

1798  Delaware Indians invite Shawnees, includes Tecumsah, to
   settle on White River (remain until 1805), probably Anderson's
   Town. 
      Daniel Leatherman died, Frederick County, MD.
      Yellow Fever epidemic continues --one of worst.
      Minister John Tanner, moves to New Madrid MO.
      Annual Meeting puts "John H." of Carolina on the ban: due to
   his radical teachings on Restitutionism and Universalism (John
   Hendricks -for some reason they do not mention David Martin -
   but do include "all that are in union with him").  The churches
   of the Carolinas are lost to the Brethren, during succeeding
   years.  Many Brethren from the Carolinas move to Kentucky. 

1799  John Miller and family take land at Wolf Creek on the Great
   Miami south of the village of Dayton (OH).  They later move
   north of the village.  An unidentified Gingrich is there. 
   Gingrich is the Swiss original of the family name corrupted to
   Kingery.  These could be Potter John Miller and Joseph Kingery,
   children of Elder Jacob Miller, of Franklin Co, Virginia. 
      Martin Urner Jr dies, Coventry Church, Pottstown PA.
      It was called the Year of the Locust, hordes of locust ate
   everything that was green.
      Very bad winter.  Three months of a solid layer of snow
   covered by a layer of ice and sleet.  It was so deep that the
   buffalo (bison) starved and were killed off by the wolves. 
   Buffalo were seldom seen in Ohio afterward. 
      The Ohio State Line was run going straight north from the
   Great Miami River at the Ohio.  This created an area between
   the Greenville Treaty  Line from Ft. Recovery to the Mouth of
   the Kentucky River and this new Ohio State Line.  This is
   called the Gore.  It was the first area of Indiana Territory. 

1800  Elder Jacob Miller moved from Franklin County, VA to Bear Creek
   near Dayton (OH).
      Elder Gasper Rowland ordains Joseph Rowland and John
   Hendricks into the ministry in Kentucky.
      Migrations from Pennsylvania to Upper Canada (Ontario).  Lots
   of 200 Acres are available, many Brethren Families move to
   areas near Toronto (Vaughn twp), Kitchener, and near the
   Niagara River.  Mennonites and River Brethren also migrate to
   these same areas.
      Eli Whitney develops the concept of mass production and
   interchangeable parts, a basis of the Industrial Revolution.

1801  Olive Branch Church (Clermont County, OH) Abraham Houser,
   Stephen Bollender, ministers -colony from Penns Valley,
   Northumberland County, PA (now Centre Co).
      It is called the Year of the Squirrels.  They are said to
   have destroyed everything they saw. 
       There was a very heavy crop of mast.  Mast is the nut of
   the beech tree, one of the most common forest trees of the
   terminal forest.  The result was large numbers of turkeys, so
   many they were a nuisance.  Also, mast is a favorite food of
   the hogs that ran wild in the forest. They were good and fat
   this year.

1802  Olive Branch Church (Clark County, IN), Jacob Stutzman, minister
      Daniel Fiant, son of Martin, married Salome Gaby, youngest
   daughter of Elder Martin Gaby, of the Oley Church. They came to
   the Whitewater River, Indiana Territory.  Daniel was a
   squatter.

1803  Alexander Mack Jr. dies, Germantown PA.
      George Wolfe Jr and Abram Hunsaker move to Union County, IL
      On a national level, this as the year President Thomas
   Jefferson made the controversial Louisiana Purchase.  This
   delighted many on the frontier, since it gave recognition to
   our westward expansion as a nation.  To the common man on the
   frontier, it meant that the government was going to look out
   for him, he wasn't left hanging on his own, as had happened to
   so many in Kentucky and the Ohio lands in earlier days.  There
   were Brethren already in Louisiana.
      Ohio became a state.
      The Kanawha Trace reaches Leesburg OH --comes from NC/Valley
   of VA through mountains of WV, to the Falls of the New River,
   and down the Kanawha River -it is a major migration route to
   Ohio.

1804   Thomas Jefferson was running for his second term in
   office.  The Democrat-Republicans ran George Clinton as his
   Vice President.  The Federalists ran Charles Cotesworth
   Pinckney of South Carolina against him again.  There was no
   contest and Thomas Jefferson won.
      Annual Meeting speaks on a simple code of dress (first time).

1805  David Horn arrives at Jonathan Creek (Perry County, OH).
      White Water Church (Cape Girardeau MO) James Hendricks,
   minister.
      Miami Church (Montgomery County, OH) Jacob Miller, elder (becomes
   Lower Miami).
      Beaver Creek Church (Green County, OH) Jacob Sigler, elder
      Donnel's Creek Church (Clark County, OH) John Garber, elder
      Nimishillen Congregation (Stark County, OH) John Gans, elder
      Indiana Territory (the Gore) was opened up for settlement. 
   The Land Office was in Cincinnati, so all purchases had to be
   made there. 
      Battle of Trafalgar, Lord Horatio Nelson destroyed the French
   Fleet.  The British issued the Orders in Council, which forbade
   American Trade with any country in Europe.  Again there was
   fierce rhetoric against oppression -and harassment of any who
   did not agree: including the Brethren.

1806  Kanawha Trace reaches Twin Creek, Four Mile Creek and
   Richmond IN.
      Twin Creek Church (Preble County, OH) Peter Eikenberry, John Hart,
   ministers.
      A trail was run due west from Dayton to the state line
   (extended it goes to Boston), it angled across Union Co. to
   the river crossing town of Brownsville, and from there to
   Conner's Trading Post, Connersville.  It seems to be the road
   Elder Jacob Miller took, going to see his children.  It
   connects the Traces at Dayton, to the Indian Road to Northern
   and Northwest Indiana (Michigan Territory) and into Illinois.
       The Lewis and Clark expedition returns from crossing the
   continent in the new Louisiana Purchase.  Their reports of the
   great west, plains, mountains, to the Pacific Ocean swept the
   nation and impacted the frontier. 

1807  The harvested wheat had some kind of fungus or bacteria on
   it, even when made into bread and baked, it made people sick. 
   The whiskey stills found that they had no problem with it. 
      Robert Fulton runs the "Clermont" (steamboat) from New York,
   up the Hudson River to Albany.

1808   Presidential Election year:  The Democrat-Republicans put
   up James Madison of Virginia.  They were split between several
   candidates for Vice President.  The Federalists put up Charles
   Cotesworth Pinckney again with Rufus King of New York as Vice
   President candidate.  James Madison won as President and George
   Clinton of New York won as Vice President.  Clinton died in
   office just before the end of this term.
      George Wolfe Jr, Jacob Wolfe and Adam Hunsaker move to Union
   County IL, from Kentucky.

1809 Four Mile Church (Union County, IN) John Moyer, Daniel Miller,
   ministers.
      Rush Creek Church (Hocking County, OH).
      George Wolfe Sr dies at Kaskaskia IL.
      The Beech Mast failed, hogs in the wild were thin and the
   squirrels raided the corn.  As this food source for the wild
   was lost, the crops of the settlers suffered. 
       The Government made a land purchase from several Indian
   chiefs, called the 12 Mile Purchase.  Essentially, the
   Government obtained for settlement land west of the Gore, on a
   line parallel to the Greenville Treaty Line, but twelve miles
   west of it.  Many Indians, including Tecumseh, protested loudly
   that those who sold the land did not have right to it.

1810   Hordes of mice.

1810-1814   War of 1812, Indian Threat from Muncytown.  There
   were no local incidents, unless a couple lost horses were
   actual Indian thefts.  The Indian fear swept every where. 
   Several people "escaped" transient Indian "War"parties, but
   they were so good that the Indians had not gotten close to
   them.  It is reported that some even carried guns coming to
   Dunker church services at Four Mile. 

1811  Knob Creek Church (Washington County, TN)  mother church of
   Brethren in Tennessee.
      Bear Creek Church (Montgomery County, OH) David Bowman, Elder;
   from the division of the Lower Miami Church.
      Lower Stillwater Church (Montgomery County, OH) John Burkett,
   elder.
      Wolf Creek Church (Montgomery County, OH) Daniel Cripe, elder
      William Henry Harrison defeats the Prophet at Prophets Town
   on the Tippecanoe River in western Indiana.  This broke
   Tecumsah's Indian league.  The Prophet (his brother) had
   promised the Indians complete protection from the bullets of
   the white man...It didn't happen!
      Governor William Henry Harrison review the local militia at
   the village of Boston, just north of the Four Mile settlement. 
   It must have been a gala festivity, with the Territorial           
   Governor present, probably everyone who could would be present. 
   It is noted that even Indians were there to observe the review
   of the militia.  This all probably brought severe conscience
   surveying by the Dunkers.  They were pacifists, they had
   suffered much from the militia in the past, because they
   refused the drill, and the drinking, cursing and carousing that
   normally were present with it, and because they refused to
   agree to popular causes, frequently being caught between two
   belligerent sides and suffering because of it.  The militia
   review was decidedly militaristic, war with Great Britain was
   imminent, possibly already declared. 
      The 12 Mile Purchase was surveyed and opened for sale.  The
   Brethren were already across it -in the Nettle Creek, following
   the Indian Road to Muncytown.
      First Steamboat "New Orleans" on Ohio River launched at
   Pittsburg.  It arrived on the Mississippi in time to experience
   the New Madrid Earthquake.
      On December 16th, at about 2 AM, the ground shook, and
   continued shaking for two days (estimated 8.6 on the Richter
   Scale).

1812 (continued)  On January 23, it shook again, severely (8.2
   Richter).  On the 27th, early in the morning, it shook
   constantly for one whole minute. 
      Finally, on February 7, at 4 AM, there were 2 extreme shocks,
   the second the most severe of all (8.7 Richter).  It was
   reported that trees in the forest even fell, and these were
   trees that had not fallen in the great wind of 1807.  (This was
   the New Madrid Earthquake.  It changed the course of the
   Mississippi River, leaving the Oxbow lakes in western
   Tennessee.  The river is reported to have flowed upstream for
   2 hrs because of the earth quake).  The shaking continued
   intermittently for 2 years.  A great religious revival
   resulted. 
      James Madison was reelected President with Elbridge Gerry of
   Massachusetts as Vice President.
      President Madison's War -"War Hawk" attacks on Canada are
   defeated.
      British burn Washington, Fort McHenry Bombarded -"Star
   Spangled Banner."
      War in the West was directed at the British Forts at Detroit
   and westward:  forts they had neglected to abandon following
   the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Revolution, forts that
   belong rightfully to this new country.  Even Canada was
   declared subject to their hostile rule, in need of assistance
   toward freedom.
      George Wolfe Jr and neighbors request baptism, from Elder
   John Hendricks, form a church (Union County, IL)
      John Tanner, minister, left New Madrid, moved to White Water
   Church, Cape Girardeau, MO.

1813  Brush Creek Church (Darke County, OH) Philip Younce, elder
      Elder John Hendricks (Kentucky) dies.
      George Wolfe Jr ordained to ministry by Elder Adam Hostetler
   of Shelby County, KY.  With them is young Peter Hahn.

1814  Muhlenberg County Church (KY) Joseph Rowland
      Grayson County Church (KY) Joseph Rowland.

1815   The Battle of New Orleans, generaled by Andrew Jackson,
   saved the west -to the settlers who lived here.  Its import
   swept the frontier and raised "Andy" to popular adulation.  The
   War was over, "We Won!" 
      There were hard times following the War of 1812.  Many lost
   their properties.  As a result, there was a new influx to the
   Ohio Valley over several years.
      Mill Creek Church (Mahoning County, OH) George Hoke, minister; 
   Here is where Henry Kurtz lived, was Elder, and published the
   Gospel Visitor.
      Annual Meeting declares against Brethren participation in the
   Frontier Revival -and various practices of the Revival.

1816   Presidential Election year:  The Democrat-Republicans
   nominated James Monroe of Virginia, with Daniel T. Tompkins of
   New York as Vice President.  The Federalists nominated Rufus
   King of New York for the Presidency, but were split over Vice
   Presidential candidates, then they lost the election. 
      Indiana obtained its statehood.  Benjamin Harrison was
   elected governor. 
      Elder Jacob Miller died.  Barbara Miller, his widow, came to
   the Four Mile, to the home of Philip Lybrook (son-in-law/
   ?brother). 
      The Year that had No Summer!
   This was a very bad year, everywhere, but especially on the
   frontier.  A popular expression was: "1816 and froze to death!" 
   It got cold at night all summer and crops would not grow, There
   was a killing frost at least once during every month.  June 5
   and 6, the temperature dropped to below 40, then on the 7th it
   snowed.  There were killing frosts all three nights.  By June
   11th, the corn was withered and dead in the field.  It was
   replanted, then in July the new stand was killed by another
   killing frost.  On August 20, the temperature again plunged and
   any remaining crops were destroyed.  Sept. 27 saw the start of
   winter with another killing frost. 

1817 (continued) WINTER.
   That winter was one of the worst ever experienced.  Snows
   started early in October, and stayed on the ground until April. 
   The snows were two feet deep with a terrible ice crust on top. 
   Many survived only because the deer were trapped by the snows
   and ice and could not escape the hunters.  Following that
   winter, deer were so scarce that they could not be depended on
   as a source for meat, nor was the common deerskin britches and
   jacket any more available.  (The cause is identified as an
   explosion that destroyed a volcano on the island of Tambora,
   Java.  The resulting dust cloud covered the earth and filtered
   the light from the sun, and thus the heat that the earth
   received.)
      Steamboats were running up the Mississippi, carrying produce. 
   Rapid transportation for the farmer had arrived.  Cincinnati
   became the "Queen City of the West"  (River Steamboats were
   called "Queens")  While they mostly displaced the Keelboat
   ("Mike Fink") with its slow upstream progression, they only
   supplemented the flatboat in carrying produce "down to
   Nawr'Leans".  Young men drive herds of hogs to Cincinnati,
   where they are butchered, barrelled, shipped to New Orleans.
      Salem Church (Montgomery County, OH) Emanuel Flory, elder.

1818  The Cumberland Road reaches the Ohio River at Wheeling (Old
   Ft Henry) and makes connection to the Zane Trace.  It begins at
   Cumberland MD.  This is the antecedent to the National Road a
   few years later.  Suddenly there is a good road to west of the
   mountains. 
      Treaty of St. Marys (OH).  William Henry Harrison at old
   Girty's Town.  Indians cede central Indiana lands to government.
   (Wabash Country).
      There had been migration west on the Indian Road through the
   12 Mile Purchase Lands (Indiana).  The fertile Middle Branch
   Valley of the Whitewater River lay just beyond the line, and
   was really too attractive.  Dunker settlers spilled over into
   it - The Nettle Creek Church.
      Illinois is admitted to the Union, as a free state (no
   slavery) Kaskaskia is the capitol.
      one bad harvest followed another in Germany, the Napoleonic
   Wars had taken their toll  and religious disputes within the
   Lutheran Church had led to disruptions of life.  A major
   immigration came to the Americas, especially from Bayern,
   Wurtemmberg, and later from Hessen, Thuringen, and
   Westpreussen.
      James Hendricks ordained to ministry at White Water Church
   (MO).

1819  Panic of 1819.  Bank loans called in, speculators collapsed
   in bankruptcy.
      Florida purchased from Spain. 
      Harmony Church (Monroe County, IN) Adam Kern Sr, minister -part
   of "Brethren Association."

1820  Nettle Creek Church (Wayne County, IN) David and Aaron Miller,
   elders.
      Annual Meeting Committee meets with Brethren leaders of "the
   Far Western Brethren", at the Muhlenberg County, Church.
      Delaware Indians move to Missouri.
      Indiana legislature establishes capitol site at Indianapolis.
   (Mouth of Fall Creek, crossing of several Indian trails 
   Delaware lands).
      Illinois Capitol is Vandalia -a hunters ranch, axmen had to
   open the road to allow passage of the wagon hauling state
   records.
      Depression --lasted till 1825.
      Land prices are dropped to $1.25/acre and the amount of land
   can be as little as a quarter section (160 Acres).
      James Monroe was sweepingly reelected to the Presidency. 
   Daniel D Tompkins of New York was reelected as Vice President. 
   It was called the era of good feeling, that swept the nation. 
      Missouri Compromise - Missouri entered Union as slave state,
   no slave states to be farther north in the new Louisiana
   Purchase.  The Brethren moved to future free states.  

1820-1822  Cholera Epidemic, many die.  (Epidemic started in
   Pennsylvania).

1821  Lost River Church (Orange County, IN) Joseph Hostetler, minister
   -member of "Brethren Association"  Questioned by Joseph
   Hostetler, Annual Meeting accepts the validity of single
   immersion baptism, as scriptural.
      William Bechnell opens the Santa Fe Trail, from Independence
   MO to Sante Fe NM.  A famous trade and migration route.
      Stephen Austin obtains permit to form first Yankee settlement
   in Texas.
      Annual Meeting states that "single immersion baptism" is
   acceptable, but the only true baptism is trine immersion (from
   Joseph Hostetler, the "Brethren Association" -Frontier Revival).

1822  White River Church (Lawrence County, IN) Abraham Kern, minister
   -member of "Brethren Association."

1823  "The Monroe Doctrine" -James Monroe;  that the United
   States was no longer an appendage of a European World, but had
   an "essentially different" destiny.  He promised that the
   United States would not intervene in European Affairs, and
   Europe must consider the Western Hemisphere closed to any
   colonization efforts.  The United States would be "unfriendly
   disposed" to any such action.

1824  Presidential Election:  This election raised a furor far
   beyond the frontier, rolling down from the mountains to the
   sea.  The Democratic-Republican legislative caucus nominated
   William Harris Crawford of Georgia.  There was no opposition
   party, the Federalists had gone - disintegrated.  Then    
   Tennessee nominated its favorite son:  Andrew Jackson.  Others
   did likewise.  Soon the Democratic-Republican Party had 4
   candidates.  Andrew Jackson received over a third of the
   Electorial votes, but not a majority.  John Quincy Adams
   received just under a third, and the remaining third was split
   between Crawford and Henry Clay of Kentucky.  Since none
   received a majority of the Electorial votes, the law cast the
   contest into the House of Representatives.  There, Clay's
   supporters threw their votes to John Quincy Adams, who then
   won.  Can't you just hear the screams of anguish as word
   filtered across the frontier? 
      Jacob Huston moves to Portage Prairie in northwestern Indiana
   (near South Bend).  It was so nice not to have to clear off
   forest trees!  This was part of Michigan Territory.  Route
   seems to have been the Quaker road to Ft. Wayne, then through
   the woods to the St. Joseph River. (Now US 27 to US 33)

1825  Erie Canal was finished from Hudson River to Lake Erie. 
   Cheap, easy transportation of goods and produce could move
   between the upper midwest and the industrial east.

1826   Miami and Pottawatammi Indians cede upper Wabash Valley,
   Tippicanoe and Miami River lands to government. 
      Racoon Creek Church (Putnam County, IN) Wm R Smith, elder;
   settlement from Darke County, OH and Four Mile IN.
      Long Creek Church (Muhlenberg County, KY) Joseph Rowland, elder
      Isham Gibson of Rutherford County, TN ordained to the ministry by
   Elder Joseph Rowland.
      Annual Meeting puts Minister Joseph Hostetler on the ban. 
   This results in the loss of all the "Brethren Association"
   churches in Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio; churches that had been
   directly connected to the Frontier Revival of 1812 and after. 
   Most of these churches eventually became the Disciples of
   Christ, although they continued to consider themselves as
   "Dunker Christians".  This is due to the differences in various
   practices between the Frontier Brethren already here, and the
   more conservative Eastern Brethren, who flood into western Ohio
   with the accessibility of the National Road.

1827   National Road came into Richmond from east, all the way
   from Cumberland, MD.  It is 80 feet wide, graveled from 30 to
   40 feet wide.  It had heavy traffic from the first, 100 wagons
   a day.  These were Conestoga Wagons, pulled by 4 to 6 horses or
   oxen.  Shipping charges were $10 a ton.  Lighter traffic was
   with "shake-guts", carts pulled with smaller horses. 
      The Union County, IL church begins to move to a better location
   in Adams County, IL -over several years the move is complete.

1828   Presidential Election:  The supporters of Andrew Jackson
   rightfully claimed that the procedure that lost him the 1824
   election were counter to the intent of the Constitution.  The
   election process was revised and much power was placed in the
   state legislatures.  Here the popular vote became a real power. 
   The Democratic-Republican Party split open and evolved into the
   Democratic Party with the nomination of Andrew Jackson and John
   C. Calhoun.  The National Republican Party nominated John
   Quincy Adams with Richard Rush.  Andrew Jackson became the next
   President.  He was the western hero, and likely drew rowdy
   support all over Indiana. 
      Pleasant Hill Church (Macoupin County, IL) Isham Gibson, minister
      Elder Joseph Rowland and Elder Joseph Dick move from Logan
   County, Kentucky to Sagamon County, IL.

1829  North Fork Church (Carroll County, IN) John Shively, minister;
   settlement from Montgomery County, OH.
      Welland Canal opened -between Lakes Ontario and Erie.

1830 Bachelor Run Church (Carroll County, IN) Peter Replogle, Peter
   Eyman, ministers; settlement from Four Mile IN and Montgomery
   County, OH.
      Elkhart Church (Elkhart County, IN) Daniel Cripe, elder;
   settlement from Montgomery County, OH.
      Sugar Creek Church (Sangamon County, IL) Isham Gibson, minister
      Adam Paine, Bureau County, IL, Brethren Missionary preaches to the
   Indians.

1831  Portage Prairie Church (St Joseph County, IN) David Miller,
   elder; settlement from Four Mile and Nettle Creek IN.
      The Union County, Church (IL) moved en mass to Adams County, IL, the
   Liberty Church; George Wolfe Jr.
      Nat Turner Rebellion: Slave revolt in So Carolina, 60 whites
   were murdered the first night.  White Slave owners and families
   were terrified.  Destroyed governmental movements against
   slavery.  This, with the Cotton Gin, brings expansion of
   Southern Slavery, and fierce Southern protection of their
   "peculiar institution", even to the floor of Congress.

1831-1832  Asiatic Cholera Epidemic (brought in by English
   immigrants) Every family lost some! 

1832  Presidential Election:  Andrew Jackson reelected President,
   Martin Van Buren as running mate.  
      The Great Fire -destroyed Hamilton Ontario.
      Very high flooding on the Ohio River.
      Thomas Miller to Putnam Co. IN (minister -Ladoga Churches).

1833  November 12, spectacular exhibit of shooting stars, filled
   the sky for several nights.  (Began American studies of
   meteorites, comets, science of astronomy.  This was the
   Leonids, 33 year cycle.) 
      Village of Chicago organized -Samuel Miller and James Miller
   (bros, from the Four Mile Church IN) are original trustees.
      Peter Nead publishes:  "Primitive Christianity", -an early
   treatise on Brethren belief and doctrines.  Became outstanding
   Brethren Leader.

1834  Nationally good times, much land speculation.
      The McCormick Reaper was invented, attracted much attention.
      Major migration to Michigan Territory (North West Indiana): 
   LaPorte and St Joseph Cos, IN (Portage Prairie), and Berrien Co
   MI.
      Annual Meeting (Stark County, OH) rejects Single Immersion
   Baptism.

1835   Elder Daniel Clingensmith died (Pike County, IL).

1836   President Andrew Jackson issued the Specie Circular.  No
   payments for land in Paper Money, only with Metal Specie.  This
   effectively stopped exchange and use of money on the frontier,
   except for hard coin.
      Presidential Election:  Democratic Party nominated Martin Van
   Buren for President and Richard Mentor Johnson of Kentucky as
   running mate.  The Whig Party had four candidates, the most
   popular one being William Henry Harrison.  Martin Van Buren won 
      Texas won its Independence from Mexico.  Battle of the Alamo.

1837  Panic of 1837  -due to the Specie Circular by Pres Jackson. 
   It brought bankrupcy to many banks, who had printed paper money
   far in excess of their cash reserves, and for land speculators,
   who were playing the margins.  For everyone else it was panic,
   financial chaos and very hard times.  Many lost their farms,
   and moved west (Indiana, Illinois).
   -lasted till 1845.
      Samuel Eikenberry family moves to Danville, Iowa Territory. 
      The National Road went west out of Richmond, to cross
   Indiana, to Vandalia, Capitol of Illinois;  and on to St. Louis
   on the Mississippi.
      Typhus Epidemic -eastern Pennsylvania.
      McKenzie's Rebellion, Toronto Ontario -his army marched right
   through Brethren area, Vaughn Twp.  Many Brethren sympathized,
   had to flee Canada -to Pennsylvania, Indiana.

1838  The "Telegraph" was invented, an instrument to send
   messages over a wire.
      Iowa becomes a Territory. 
      Mexico Church (Miami County, IN) William Moss, elder; settlement
   from Preble County, OH and Four Mile IN.
      Eel River Church (Wabash County, IN) David Ulrey, minister;
   settlement from Montgomery County, and Miami County, OH.
      Manchester Church (Wabash County, IN) Joseph Harter, minister;
   settlement from Montgomery County, and Miami County, OH.
      Turkey Creek Church (Elkhart County, IN) John Leatherman, elder.

1839  Joseph Smith founds the city of Nauvoo, on the Mississippi
   in Northern Illinois, it is a refuge for the persecuted church
   in Caldwell County, MO, many others come, even from England.  Many
   Brethren are attracted to this new movement.

1840   Presidential Election:  Democratic Party renominates
   Martin Van Buren.  Whig Party renominates William Henry
   Harrison with John Tyler as running mate.  Harrison receives
   almost 4/5ths of the Electorial vote, although the popular vote
   is much nearer even.  "Tippicanoe and Tyler, too."  William 
   Henry Harrison was our own man, first governor, etc. 

1841   President William Henry Harrison died in office.  Took
   sick from ceremony of Oath of Office.  John Tyler becomes first
   Vice President to succeed to Presidency by death of President. 
      Jesse Toney moves to Fulton Co. IL (date ?)  "two wagons, dog
   under 2nd" claim to fame: "split rails with Abe Lincoln". 
      Mississinewa Church (Delaware County, IN) John Younce, minister;
   settlement from Darke County, IN.
      Yellow Fever Epidemic -especially severe in South.

1842  A mechanical device called the "Sewing Machine" was
   invented. 
      Arnold's Grove Church (Carroll County, IL) Christian Long,
   minister;  Settlement from Franklin County, PA.  Northern Illinois
   was settled from the east, across Indiana.

1843  Oregon Trail, first wagon train leaves Independence MO
      Thomas and Sarah Major move to Scioto County, OH from Philadelphia
1844  Presidential Election:  After 8 tied ballots between Clay
   and Van Buren, the Democratic Party nominated James K. Polk of
   Tennessee with George Mifflin of PA as running mate.  The Whig
   Party nominated Henry Clay of Kentucky.  Polk received almost
   2/3rds of the Electorial vote:  A "Dark Horse" candidate, whom
   people did not know.
      Libertyville Church (Jefferson County, IA) organized by Elder
   George Wolfe, Jr.
      Joseph Smith is murdered, at Carthage IL.

1845   Typhoid Fever Epidemic.  Many deaths, especially among
   children. 
      Ex-President Andrew Jackson died, much mourning. 

1846  West Branch Church (Ogle County, IL) settlement from
   Conococheague, MD.
      First state Prohibition Law --against alcoholic beverages and
   drunkenness.
      Brigham Young moves the Mormon Church to Zion, Salt Lake
   City, Utah.  
      Jacob Hunsaker family moves to Oregon Territory.

1846-1847  Mexican War  -instigated by President Polk;  General
   Zachary Taylor and Gen Winfield Scott invaded Mexico.  The
   Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave the United States: California,
   New Mexico (included Utah, Arizona and Nevada), and the Rio
   Grande River as a border for Texas.

1847  John Toney family take Wagon Train to Willamette Valley OR 
      Thomas and Sarah Major move to Highland County, OH, Lexington
   Church, on the Kanawha Trace.

1847-1848  Flu Epidemic -world wide, sweeps across the country.

1848  Presidential Election:  Zachary Taylor ran with Millard
   Fillmore.
      Oregon Territory organized. 
      Gold is found at Sutter's Fort (Sacramento CA).

1849  Gold Rush to California.
      Cholera Epidemic - starts in East, moves across nation
      Thomas Miller, minister, from Putnam Co. IN to Cedar County
   MO, on the Sac River.
      Daniel Leedy, minister, to Jefferson Co. IA.

1850   President Zachary Taylor takes ill and dies in office. 
   Vice President Millard Fillmore succeeds as President. 
      Fugitive Slave Law enacted, the Government is responsible to
   find and return escaping slaves:  Underground Railroad results.
      Peter Nead publishes: "Nead's Theological Works" -regarded
   as most satisfactory vindication of Brethren church principles,
   became a standard work .
      Annual Meeting states that it is wrong for the Brethren to
   go against the counsel of the Annual Meeting.
      Yellow Fever Epidemic -nation wide.

1850-1851  Flu Epidemic -nationwide.
      Cholera Epidemic -Illinois and west.

1851  Henry Kurtz begins printing of the "Gospel Visitor", in
   English -Mill Creek Church, Mahoning County, OH.
      Annual Meeting Committee meets with Far Western Brethren of
   Northern Illinois.  George Wolfe Jr and James Hendricks are
   convinced of errors in Bible Interpretations about communion.
      Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" -overwhelming
   publication, against Black slavery.

1852  Presidential Election:  Franklin Pierce elected as
   President. 
      Ridenour family begins building of the Junction Railroad,
   becomes Cincinnati, Hamilton and Indianapolis Railroad.
      Jacob Wigle and families take Wagon Train to Willamette
   Valley, Oregon Territory.  Some of the Oregon Brethren hold the
   Universalist doctrine.
      Yellow Fever Epidemic -nationwide -many deaths.

1853  The B&O, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is completed from
   Baltimore, MD to the Ohio River at Wheeling.

1854  Daniel Leedy, minister, moves to Willamette Valley Church,
   Oregon Territory.
      Samuel Eikenberry family move to Plattsmouth, Nebraska
   Territory;  is member of first Nebraska Territorial Assembly,
   and of the Nebraska Constitutional Convention.
      Daniel Miller, minister, leads colony from Four Mile, to
   Monroe Co. Iowa Territory.

1855   Daniel Miller, elder (of Putnam County, IN, uncle) moves to
   Monroe Co. Iowa Territory.
      Philip Moss, elder (of Carroll County, IN, cousin) to Butler Co.
   Iowa Territory.

1856  Presidential Election:  James Buchanan, Democrat and former
   Minister to Britain, was opposed by John Fremont, "the
   Pathfinder", who led troops to California and Oregon, and was
   very popular.  Buchanan's Vice President, Millard Fillmore, was
   more popular than Fremont, and the Democrats won.
      Cottonwood Church (Lyon County, KS).
      Qantrill's Raid on Lawrence Kansas.
      Senator Charles Sumner attack on the floor of the Senate by
   Preston Brooks -Sumner was an abolitionist, Brooks became a
   Southern Hero.
      Bro James Quinter joins the staff of the Brethren Visitor.
      
1857  Panic of 1857.
      Dred Scott Decision:  Federal Court denies rights of freedom
   to a slave, who had lived in Illinois, a Free state (slavery
   was forbidden in the northern states), because he returned to
   his home in Missouri, a slave state.

1857-1859  Flu Epidemic -one of worst ever - many died.

1858-1860  Typhoid Epidemic.

1858  Lincoln - Douglass Debates.
      Church of the Brethren in California (Stockton) George Wolfe
   Jr, minister.
      Washington Creek Church (Douglas County, KS).

1859  John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry.
      Wolf River Church (KS).
      The Far Western Brethren (Illinois) are accepted in full
   union with Annual Meeting -the action is actually a compromise
   of the methods of practice in certain of the sacraments.

1860  Presidential Election:  Abraham Lincoln of Illinois defeats
   Stephen A Douglass (the Little Giant), over the issue of
   Slavery and States Rights.
       Civil War begins.
       Pony Express mail service started with California. 

1860-1861  Small Pox Epidemic -Pennsylvania.

1863  Minister, Thomas Miller, Cedar County, MO, was fatally shot in
   an attempt to escape to Kansas.  He died in Fort Scott KS.
      Elder Abraham Rothrock, Lawrence KS, was shot and left for
   dead, but revived and recovered. (Bleeding Kansas).

1864  Elder John Kline, murdered, after return to Virginia from
   Annual Meeting at Nettle Creek Church, Hagerstown IN, where he
   was Presiding Elder.

1865  Elder George Wolfe, Jr. died (IL).