Church of the Brethren
Locations of Annual Conference
Prepared by Ron Gordon ~ Church of the Brethren Network ~ © Copyright 1997-2013 ~ Last Updated: March 24, 2013Graphic Version
|2016 - 7/2-6||230||Greensboro, North Carolina|
|2015 - 7/11-15||229||Tampa, Florida|
|2014 - 6/28-7/2||228||Columbus, Ohio||(Nancy Heishman)|
|2013 - 6/29-7/3||227||Charlotte, North Carolina||Robert Krouse||Move In Our Midst|
|2012 - 7/7-11||226||St. Louis, Missouri||Tim Harvey||Continuing the work of Jesus|
|2011||225||Grand Rapids, Michigan||Robert E. Alley||Gifted with Promise: Extending Jesus Table|
|2010||224||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||Shawn Flory Replogle||Taking Jesus Seriously|
General Board and Association of Brethren Caregivers merge to form Church of the Brethren, Inc. The new organization will be directed by a new Mission and Ministry Board which also absorbs the Annual Conference Council which began in 2001.
|2009||223||San Diego, California||David Shumate||The Old has Gone - The New has Come|
Church of the Brethren celebrates its 300th Anniversary at the Richmond Annual Conference from the time of its founding in 1708 when eight believers rebaptized themselves in the Eder River near the village of Schwarzenau, Germany.
|2008||222||Richmond, Virginia||James Beckwith||Surrendered to God, Transformed in Christ, Empowered by the Spirit|
|2007||221||Cleaveland, Ohio||Belita Mitchel||Proclaim the Power of God|
|2006||220||Des Moines, Iowa||Ronald Beachley||Together: Exercise Daily in God|
Closed-Circuit Captioning instead of Sign Language first debuted in 2005 at Peoria. A court stenographer sat in a back room and returned voice input with digital that was then projected on the main screens. In a few years, voice was outsourced to a firm, perhaps in another state, that returned a digital stream to the Conference.
|2005||219||Peoria, Illinois||Jim Hardenbrook||Fixing Our Eyes on Jesus|
|2004||218||Charleston, West Virginia||Christopher Bowman||Loving God and Neighbor|
|2003||217||Boise, Idaho||Harriet Finney||In Jesus Name|
|2002||216||Louisville, Kentucky||Paul Grout||Thy Kingdom Come|
Annual Conference Council established at Baltimore to mitigate administrative and procedural conflicts arising from the General Board Redesign of 1997, and further serve to relieve delegate overburden by interpreting polity and resolving misunderstandings between reporting agencies. Includes current Officers, the past Moderator, another former Moderator, and one District Executive.
|2001||215||Baltimore, Maryland||Phill Carlos Archbold||Revive Us Again|
Delegates will adjust to a new schedule in Kansas City with worship beginning on Saturday evening followed by worship on Sunday morning with business sessions on Sunday afternoon and evening. The final worship service and business session will be Wednesday morning including Moderator consecration.
|2000||214||Kansas City, Missouri||Emily Mumma||Love As I Have Loved You|
|1999||213||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||Lowell Flory||Let the Servant Church Arise|
|1998||212||Orlando, Florida||Elaine Sollenberger||...so that God is not ashamed to be called our God|
General Board Redesign will become effective in January of 1998 after requesting approval from the 1997 Annual Conference at Long Beach. Congregational Life Teams will be formed to enhance communication and resourcing between the General Board, Districts and Congregations.
|1997||211||Long Beach, California||David Wine||Count Well the Cost|
|1996||210||Cincinnati, Ohio||H. Fred Bernhard||... as Christ welcomed you|
AC 1996 at Cincinnati is the first Annual Conference to be on the Web through a joint cooperation of Church of the Brethren Network and the News Service of the General Board. COB-NET preceded the official General Board web site by several years.
|1995||209||Charlotte, North Carolina||Judy Mills Reimer||Claim Christs Call|
|1994||208||Wichita, Kansas||Earl K. Ziegler||Come! Drink the Living Water|
|1993||207||Indianapolis, Indiana||Charles Boyer||Proclaiming Gods Peace|
|1992||206||Richmond, Virginia||Phyllis J. Carter||Forward - Seeking the Mind of Christ|
|1991||205||Portland, Oregon||Phillip C. Stone||Behold!! The Wonder of Gods Presence|
|1990||204||Milwaukee, Wisconsin||Curtis W. Dubble||Living in Obedience to Gods Calling|
|1989||203||Orlando, Florida||Elaine M. Sollenberger||Living as Gods Friends|
|1988||202||St. Louis, Missouri||William A. Hayes||Called Into Shalom|
|1987||201||Cincinnati, Ohio||Guy E. Wampler||Anointed|
|1986||200||Norfolk, Virginia||Donald F. Durnbaugh||Go Forth in Faith|
|1985||199||Phoenix, Arizona||James F. Myer||Called to Make Disciples|
|1984||198||Carbondale, Illinois||Paul Fike||Gods Grace Renews & Empowers|
|1983||197||Baltimore, Maryland||Paul W. Hoffman||Gods Grace as a Gift|
|1982||196||Wichita, Kansas||Earle W. Fike, Jr.||Would That You Knew the Things that Make for Peace|
|1981||195||Indianapolis, Indiana||Duane H. Ramsey||Go Now with God|
|1980||194||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania||William R. Eberly||The Church Faithful|
|1979||193||Seattle, Washington||Warren F. Groff||Partakers of the Promise|
|1978||192||Indianapolis, Indiana||Ira B. Peters||The Spirit of the Lord is Upon Us|
|1977||191||Richmond, Virginia||Charles M. Bieber||To Serve in a Changing World|
|1976||190||Wichita, Kansas||A. Blair Helman||Set Free to Serve|
|1975||189||Dayton, Ohio||Donald E. Rowe||All Creation Awaits|
|1974||188||Roanoke, Virgina||Wayne F. Geisert||Let the Word Become Flesh|
|1973||187||Fresno, California||Dean M. Miller||Liberating the Word|
|1972||186||Cincinnati, Ohio||Dale W. Brown||Flamed By the Spirit|
|1971||185||St. Petersburg, Florida||Harold Z. Bomberger||The Celebration of Love|
|1970||184||Lincoln, Nebraska||A.C. Bridenstine||Celebration of Hope|
|1969||183||Louisville, Kentucky||Morley J. Mays||Faithfulness in Change|
General Brotherhood Board (created in 1946) is reorganized in structure, function, staffing, and renamed General Board. Five commissions become three: Parish Ministries Commission, World Ministries Commission, and General services Commission. The new Board is composed of twenty-five members: fifteen elected from geographical areas (districts), ten elected at large, plus Annual Conference Moderator and Moderator-Elect as ex-officio members. (See also 1997 Redesign).
Annual Conference Minutes, 1968, p. 80, ff.
|1968||182||Ocean Grove, New Jersey||Guy West||God Loves the World So,
He Makes All Things New
The Elders' Council and the Elders, Pastors, and Moderators' council be discontinued, and that functions formerly carried by these councils shall become the responsibility of the district board and/or its commissions.
Annual Conference Minutes, 1967, p. 45.
|1967||181||Eugene, Oregon||Raymond R. Peters||God Loves the World So...|
|1966||180||Louisville, Kentucky||Dan West||God Loves the World So...|
District Organizations and Relationships revised through a new constitution of ten articles and bylaws of ten articles to realign each district with more consistenty. District Boards will be composed of four Commissions: Nurture, Witness, Ministry, and Stewards. Included are changes to bylaws, the role of district conference, functions of the district board, responsibilities and qualifications of officers, function of committees, and staff employment.
Annual Conference Minutes, 1965, p. 17, ff.
|1965||179||Ocean Grove, New Jersey||A. Stauffer Curry||To Heal the Broken, In Loving Obedience|
Congregational Organization and Polity revised through a new constitution of ten articles which establishes a Church Board of three Commissions (Nurture, Witness, Stewards) with an Executive Committee, Congregational Business Meeting (formerly Council Meeting), and further defines membership, legal church officials, fiscal & church year, bylaws governing personnel selection and tenure, employed staff, and provisions for ammendments.
Annual Conference Minutes, 1964, p. 24, ff.
|1964||178||Lincoln, Nebraska||De Witt L. Miller||To Heal the Broken|
|1963||177||Champaign-Urbana, Illinois||Harry K. Zeller, Jr.||To Heal the Broken|
|1962||176||Ocean Grove, New Jersey||Nevin H. Zuck||Jesus Christ, The Light of the World|
|1961||175||Long Beach, California||Charles E. Zunkel||My Calling to Fulfill|
|1960||174||Champaign-Urbana, Illinois||Edward K. Ziegler||My Calling to Fulfill|
|1959||173||Ocean Grove, New Jersey||William M. Beahm||Brethren Under the Lordship of Christ, The Time So Urgent|
Church of the Brethren celebrates its 250th Anniversary at the Des Moines Annual Conference from the time of its founding in 1708 when eight believers rebaptized themselves in the Eder River near the village of Schwarzenau, Germany.
|1958||172||Des Moines, Iowa||D.W. Bittinger||Brethren Under the Lordship of Christ|
1,023 total delegate body exceeds one thousand for the first time in the history of Annual Conference.
|1957||171||Richmond, Virginia||A.C. Baugher||Seek First His Kingdom|
|1956||170||Eugene, Oregon||Paul M. Robinson||Seek First His Kingdom|
|1955||169||Grand Rapids, Michigan||A. Stauffer Curry||Seek First His Kingdom|
|1954||168||Ocean Grove, New Jersey||William M. Beahm||Win Men to Christ|
|1953||167||Colorado Springs, Colorado||V.F. Schwalm||Win Men to Christ|
|1952||166||Richmond, Virginia||Ralph Schlosser||Teaching Them to Observe All Things|
|1951||165||San Jose, California||D.W. Bittinger|
|1950||164||Grand Rapids, Michigan||Harper Will
( acting Moderator )
|1949||163||Ocean Grove, New Jersey||Paul H. Bowman|
|1948||162||Colorado Springs, Colorado||Calvert N. Ellis|
|1947||161||Orlando, Florida||Rufus D. Bowman|
By far the most significant organizational development during this general time period was the growth of boards and committees. From these existing boards, Annual Conference created in 1946 a General Brotherhood Board of twenty-five members divided into five commissions: Foreign Missions, Ministry and Home Missions, Christian Education, Finance, and Christian Service (later Brethren Service Commission).
|1946||160||Wenatchee, Washington||Rufus Bucher|
|1945||159||North Manchester, Indiana||Warren D. Bowman|
|1944||158||Huntingdon, Pennsylvania||Charles C. Ellis|
|1943||157||McPherson, Kansas||W.W. Peters|
|1942||156||Ashville, North Carolina||Paul H. Bowman|
|1941||155||La Verne, California||C. Ernest Davis|
|1940||154||Ocean Grove, New Jersey||Rufus D. Bowman|
|1939||153||Anderson, Indiana||D.W. Kurtz|
|1938||152||Lawrence, Kansas||V.F. Schwalm|
|1937||151||Nampa, Idaho||Paul H. Bowman|
|1936||150||Hershey, Pennsylvania||D.W. Kurtz|
As the twentieth century progressed, Annual Meeting minutes proved to be less and less of an impediment for progressives, many of whom discovered they could simply ignore minutes that they viewed as peculiar or outdated. This was especially true after the 1911 dress decision abandoned the precedent of making plainness a test of membership. Reflecting this reality, a conservative brother remarked in 1920 that the mischief of the past fifty years had been for churches to go ahead of Annual Conference, ignoring its decisions until the brotherhood faced a serious dilemma of how to handle those who were out of order. The chronic solution, the brother commented, had been for conservatives to give ground: We simply have submitted to those who were not loyal to the decisions of the church. Another echoed similar dissatisfaction with the fact that many of our conference rulings have been lived down in practice before they were repealed by the Conference.
Brethren Society, C. Bowman, p. 258
|1935||149||Winona Lake, Indiana||Charles C. Ellis|
|1934||148||Ames, Iowa||Otho Winger|
|1933||147||Hershey, Pennsylvania||Charles D. Bonsack|
|1932||146||Anderson, Indiana||D.W. Kurtz|
|1931||145||Colorado Springs, Colorado||Otho Winger|
|1930||144||Hershey, Pennsylvania||James Moore|
|1929||143||North Manchester, Indiana||H.K. Ober|
|1928||142||La Verne, California||Otho Winger|
|1927||141||Hershey, Pennsylvania||J.W. Lear|
|1926||140||Lincoln, Nebraska||D.W. Kurtz|
|1925||139||Winona Lake, Indiana||Otho Winger|
|1924||138||Hershey, Pennsylvania||J.J. Yoder|
|1923||137||Calgary, Canada||Otho Winter|
|1922||136||Winona Lake, Indiana||I.W. Taylor|
|1921||135||Hershey, Pennsylvania||Otho Winger|
The Church of the Brethren has preserved the general form and method of the Annual Meeting, known as Annual Conference since 1927, but has altered organizational procedural details to accommodate the changing nature of the denominations. Concerned about finding appropriate meeting sites for increasing number of Brethren, the 1912 meeting asked that future meetings be held on grounds dedicated to religious assemblies or in cities where auditoriums with good acoustics could be used. The frequent use between 1900 and 1970 of the Methodist ground at Ocean Grove, NJ, the interdenominational conference grounds at Winona Lake, IN, and facilities at Hershey, PA, attests the strength of this conviction.
|1920||134||Sedalia, Missouri||I.W. Taylor|
|1919||133||Winona Lake, Indiana||H.C. Early|
|1918||132||Hershey, Pennsylvania||I.W. Taylor|
|1917||131||Wichita, Kansas||H.C. Early|
|1916||130||Winona Lake, Indiana||I.W. Taylor|
|1915||129||Hershey, Pennsylvania||H.C. Early|
|1914||128||Seattle, Washington||Frank Fisher|
|1913||127||Winona Lake, Indiana||D.M. Garver|
|1912||126||York, Pennsylvania||H.C. Early|
( Traditional plain clothing, known as the Garb, is no longer a test of membership ) Elders were given the prerogative of determining, in conjunction with their local congregations, whether or not plainness would be a matter for church discipline. It is hard to say whether this report would have been adopted in 1911 had Annual Meeting convened in Ohio or Pennsylvania, but in Missouri, the balance of delegates tipped toward the progressive end of the spectrum. And tolerance held sway. Some viewed the following year as the true test of the new policy, for Annual Meeting traveled to York Pennsylvania, the heartland of Brethren traditionalism. Predictably, queries came from the conservative districts of southern Ohio and eastern Pennsylvania, which appealed the loose clauses of the 1911 decision. These revisions would reestablish the disciplinary authority that had been lacking for a year ... In York in 1912, a majority of the Annual meeting delegates voted to toughen the toothless 1911 decision - to reestablish stricter enforcement of the order. However, the required two-thirds was not forthcoming. Thus, the watershed 1911 decision was left unaltered, never again to be seriously challenged.
Brethren Society, C. Bowman, p. 240, ff.
|1911||125||St. Joseph, Missouri||D.M. Garver|
|1910||124||Winona Lake, Indiana||H.C. Early|
|1909||123||Harrisonburg, Virginia||D.M. Garver|
Church of the Brethren officially adopted as the new denominational label of the former German Baptism Brethren at it's bicentennial celebration on June 9 at the Des Moines, Iowa, Annual Conference. In the wake of the 1880 schism's of the progressive Brethren Church and the conservative Old German Baptist Brethren, this change now reflected the desire of the large central group to establish their own identity.
|1908||122||Des Moines, Iowa||H.C. Early|
|1907||121||Los Angeles, California||L.T. Holsinger|
|1906||120||Springfield, Illinois||S.F. Sanger|
|1905||119||Bristol, Tennessee||John Zuck|
|1904||118||Carthage, Missouri||H.C. Early|
|1903||117||Bellefontaine, Ohio||S.F. Sanger|
|1902||116||Harrisburg, Pennsylvania||D.L. Miller|
|1901||115||Lincoln, Nebraska||Daniel Vaniman|
|1900||114||North Manchester, Indiana||D.L. Miller|
|1899||113||Roanoke, Virginia||L.T. Holsinger|
|1898||112||Naperville, Illinois||W.R. Deeter|
|1897||111||Frederick, Maryland||L.W. Teeter|
|1896||110||Ottawa, Kansas||D.E. Price|
|1895||109||Decatur, Illinois||Enoch Eby|
|1894||108||Meyersdale, Pennsylvania||Enoch Eby|
|1893||107||Muncie, Indiana||D.E. Price|
|1892||106||Cedar Rapids, Iowa||Daniel Vaniman|
|1891||105||Hagerstown, Maryland||Daniel Vaniman|
|1890||104||Pertle Springs, Missouri||Enoch Eby|
|1889||103||Harrisonburg, Virginia||S.S. Mohler|
|1888||102||North Manchester, Indiana||Enoch Eby|
|1887||101||Ottawa, Kansas||Enoch Eby|
|1886||100||Pittsburg, Ohio||D.E. Price|
|1885||99||Mexico, Pennsylvania||John Wise|
|1884||98||Dayton, Ohio||Enoch Eby|
The Brethren Church is founded on June 6-7, in Dayton, Ohio, by Henry Holsinger and other Progressive sympathizers. Their official voice of publication The Progressive Christian is renamed Brethren Evangelist
|1883||97||Bismark Grove, Kansas||Enoch Eby|
Progressive leader Henry Holsinger, publisher of The Progressive Christian having been reprimanded by the 1882 Annual Meeting to refrain from slanderous and schismatic articles is disfellowshiped from Annual Meeting. Old German Baptist Brethren held their first Annual Meeting near Brookville, Ohio, and established The Vindicator as their official voice of publication.
|1882||96||Arnold's, Kosciusko Co., Indiana||Enoch Eby|
Miami Valley Petition resubmitted by disappointed Old Order group directly to Annual Meeting and was rejected because it did not first receive approval from the local district conference. Old Order group met in November and decided to break from the authority of Annual Meeting, calling themselves the Old German Baptist Brethren.
|1881||95||Ashland, Ohio||Enoch Eby|
Miami Valley Petition is submitted by Old Order group to Annual Meeting and is rejected by delegates who also decide to use majority rule at each yearly meeting instead of a consensus vote. This petition requested strict adherence to diminishing values that had formerly been a watermark of Brethren culture: simplicity, distinctive clothing, non-conformity with outside worldliness. Miami Valley Ohio elders further declared their unwillingness to accept additional progressive innovations. Petition was accepted by local district conference, however, Standing Committee entered a moderated substitute petition to Annual Meeting that contained statements such as while we are conservative we are also progressive that were entirely unacceptable to the Miami Valley elders.
|1880||94||Lanark, Illinois||Enoch Eby|
Annual Meetings before 1880 were devoted to doctrine and practice, particularly questions on baptism and discipline. During the mid-19th century, many queries appeared which questioned Brethren altitudes toward innovations of the day. Especially in questions of church life and ecclesiastical authority, Annual Meeting attempted to provide strong, but cautious leadership.
|1879||93||Broadway, Virgina||R.H. Miller|
|1878||92||North Manchester, Indiana||Enoch Eby|
|1877||91||New Enterprise, Pennsylvania||D.P. Sayler|
|1876||90||De Graff, Logan Co., Ohio||H.B. Davy|
|1875||89||Covington, Ohio||H.B. Davy|
|1874||88||Macaoupin Co., Illinois||H.B. Davy|
|1873||87||Meyersdale, Pennsylvania||H.B. Davy|
|1872||86||Wayne Co., Ohio||H.B. Davy|
|1871||85||Berks Co., Pennsylvania||H.B. Davy|
Denominational Name Change: Would it not be more consistent with the gospel for the brethren to adopt a definite name in writing letters of recommendations? Answer: We think it would be good to head all letters of recommendation as follows: "We, the German Baptist Brethren, send greeting."
|1870||84||Waterloo, Black Hawk Co., Iowa||H.B. Davy|
|1869||83||Peters Creek, Virginia||H.B. Davy|
|1868||82||Elkhart Co., Indiana||H.B. Davy|
|1867||81||Pipe Creek, Maryland||H.B. Davy|
|1866||80||Antietam, Franklin Co., PA||H.B. Davy|
|1865||79||Rock River, Lee Co., Illinois||H.B. Davy|
|1864||78||Nettle Creek, Wayne Co., IN||John Kline|
|1863||77||Clover Creek, Blair Co., PA||John Kline|
|1862||76||Erbaugh, Montgomery Co., Ohio||John Kline|
|1861||75||Beaver Creek, Rockingham Co., VA||John Kline|
|1860||74||Limestone, Washington Co., PA||D.P. Sayler|
|1859||73||Elk Creek, Somerset Co., PA||D.P. Sayler|
|1858||72||Bachelor Run, Carroll Co., MD||George Hoke|
|1857||71||Manor, Washington Co., MD||George Hoke|
Delegates of Annual Meeting granted approval for the establishment of Districts that would be better able to serve and minister to the specific needs of congregations in their own geographical region.
|1856||70||Waddams Grove, Stephenson Co., IL||George Hoke|
|1855||69||Aughwick, Huntingdon Co., PA||George Hoke|
|1854||68||Ashland Co., Ohio||George Hoke|
|1853||67||Beaver Dam, Maryland||George Hoke|
|1852||66||Turkey Creek, Elkhart Co., Indiana||George Hoke|
|1851||65||New Hope, Augusta Co., Virgina||George Hoke|
|1850||64||Bear Creek, Montgomery Co., Ohio||George Hoke|
|1849||63||Somerset Co., Pennsylvania||George Hoke|
|1848||62||Wayne Co., Ohio||George Hoke|
|1847||61||Franklin Co., Pennsylvania||?|
|1846||60||Trout Creek, Lancaster Co., PA||?|
Between 1844 and 1848 a small number of elders began to be chosen as members of a "general committee." This was a groups of five to seven elders who received the queries in private and organized them, giving answers to some, returning others to the congregations, and submitting the rest to the meeting. A Standing Committee replaced the general committee in 1853. Their duties were further clarified in 1866.
|1843||57||Mohican, Wayne Co., Ohio||?|
|1842||56||Beaver Dam, Maryland||?|
|1841||55||Somerset Co., Pennsylvania||?|
|1840||54||Morrison's Cove, Bedford Co., PA||?|
|1839||53||Huntingdon Co., Pennsylvania||?|
|1838||52||Washington Co., MD||?|
|1837||51||Linville Creek, Rockingham Co., VA||?|
|1836||50||Cumberland Co., Pennsylvania||?|
Denominational Name Change: What should be the name of our fraternity, when a title for a meeting-house is made and recorded in the public offices? Unanimously concluded to call ourselves the Fraternity of German Baptists. Note: There remains yet one congregation that still incorporates the name Fraternity in their title: Fraternity Church of the Brethren
|1835||49||Cumberland Co., Pennsylvania||?|
|1834||48||Stark Co., Ohio||?|
|1833||47||Lost Creek, Juniata Co., PA||?|
|1832||46||Rockingham Co., Virginia||?|
|1830||44||Pipe Creek, Maryland||?|
|1829||43||George Royer's, Franklin Co., PA||?|
|1828||42||York Co., Pennsylvania||?|
|1826||40||Richard's, Washington Co., MD||?|
|1825||39||Cumberland Co., Pennsylvania||?|
|1824||38||Cumberland Co., Pennsylvania||?|
|1821||36||Glade, Somerset Co., PA||?|
|1819||34||Great Conewago, Pennsylvania||?|
|1815||31||White Oak, Pennsylvania||John Zug|
|1814||30||Pipe Creek, Maryland||?|
|1811||27||Elk Lick Twp., Somerset Co., PA||?|
|1804||24||Pipe Creek, Maryland||?|
|1799||21||Pipe Creek, Maryland||?|
|1798||20||Little Conewago, Pennsylvania||?|
|1793||17||Great Conewago, Pennsylvania||?|
|1789||14||Great Conestoga, Pennsylvania||?|
|1787||12||Pipe Creek, Maryland||?|
|1785||11||Big Conestoga, Pennsylvania||?|
|1783||10||Pipe Creek, Maryland||?|
Minutes first recorded of an Annual Meeting at Pipe Creek in 1778. This signified a recognition that organization and details were important to what began as a single meeting to address a single issue.
|1778||5||Pipe Creek, Maryland||?|
The time chosen for the meeting centered around Pentecost, although the arrangement of sessions varied. Before the 1830s, Brethren gathered on Friday morning before Pentecost Sunday. After a brief period of worship, the council or business meeting was conducted the rest of the day until all questions had been decided. Saturday was taken up in public worship with a love feast in the evening. After solemn worship on Sunday morning, the meeting was closed. This schedule held until 1847, when more time was reserved for business sessions. It was then decided to gather on Saturday before Pentecost and to spend that day and Sunday in worship. Love Feast was started on Monday morning and continued until all business was discharged. This arrangement held up to the 1880s.
|1742||1||Coventry(?), Pennsylvania||Martin Urner|